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The Arp Certificate

If you have finished the Herschel 400 and might be looking for new worlds to conquer, give the Arp list from the Astronomical League a try. While the League suggests a 12.5 inch telescope, the C-8 owner - with a bit of persistence and skill - can successfully track down these elusive objects. While a few members of the Arp Catalog of Peculiar Galaxies are bright, be advised that most of them are close to the limits of detection for a C-8. While pitch black skies would be an asset, I found most of the Arp objects listed below (given by

NGC numbers) in conditions ranging from pretty dark to moderate light pollution. Most of the observations were made within 50 miles of the center of Atlanta and the light dome from the city and surrounding towns was a factor.

Here are most of the observations for the Arp Certificate that I made. Perhaps this indication of how an object looks through a C-8 might improve your chances of finding that object.

Good luck on the hunt!

NGC 14 Fairly large and faint galaxy. First seen by moving scope with 110x and just held with direct at that magnification. Low surface brightness. Higher magnification doesn't help much. Round with uniform brightness.

NGC 70 A small clumping of galaxies at this location. Seen as a foggy patch at 110x, the area looks like a faint nebula. Higher magnifications and averted vision bring several galaxies into view. This field needs more scope than my 8 incher to clarify. Several faint stars involved as well.

NGC 145 Very faint and difficult at 100x. Spotted with averted vision and then with direct, but not easy at all. Fairly large with no detail seen. Slightly brighter central area.

NGC 169 This faint galaxy is overpowered by close-by mag 5 or 6 star. It is seen with averted vision at 110x and held with 222x. A mag 13 star is near the edge of this round galaxy.

NGC 191 Large, round and very faint galaxy. This is close to a threshold object. Suspected at 110x and just barely seen at 142x. Close to mag. 9 double star.

NGC 221 (M32) Bright elliptical galaxy. Easy at all powers.

NGC 274/275 Fairly obvious at 110x, but a bit better at 142x. Large dim pair of galaxies. Stellar nucleus obvious in one. 222x shows a dark lane between the galaxies.

NGC 341A/B At the limits of detection at 125x. Just barely glimpsed by moving scope and using averted vision. However, this object is now sitting on the edge of the Zodiacal light with is reducing contrast in the western sky.

NGC 455 One of the most difficult objects I have located! Very faint, round galaxy picked out with Uranometria and 167x. Stellar nucleus comes and goes.

NGC 474 An interesting field of at least 3 galaxies. 470 is the brightest. Small, round with a brighter core. 474 is larger and fainter without brightening. 467 sits near a mag 9 star and is round and brighter than 474.

NGC 520 Short streak. Pretty bright. Easy at 110x.

NGC 545 Very faint glow at 167x. Not seen with lower magnifications. Round galaxy with no brightening. Suspect I am seeing the combined glow of 545 and 547.

NGC 702 Very faint round galaxy. Seen with averted vision at 125x and just held with direct at 167x. A bit north of a mag 7 star which makes a good pointer to this galaxy.

NGC 750 A pretty bright galaxy. Easy at 110x. Round with slight central brightening. Suggestion of other galaxies in field right at the edge of detection.

NGC 772 Large, bright galaxy. Easy at 110x. Bright core, round. Good at 142x.

NGC 833 Very faint round galaxy with stellar core. Averted vision needed at 125x, 167x and 222x. Very faint star or stellaring involved.

NGC 935 Very faint, small galaxy. Appears slightly elongated. Not easy at 110x. Galaxy is just northeast of a mag. 10 star and this star makes seeing galaxy much more difficult.

NGC 1023 Rather bright galaxy. Very easy at 100x. Bright center and nucleus. Good at 200x.

NGC 1024 Small, faint galaxy. Averted vision shows it just west of 11th mag star. Held with direct vision at 142x.

NGC 1068 M77 - Very bright galaxy. Easy at 125x. Bright core surrounded by much fainter arms.

NGC 1097 Bright, large galaxy. Good at 125x with definite arms and very bright nucleus.

NGC 1232 Large, pretty faint round galaxy. Easy at 100x. Would be better but for Florida haze. No central brightening seen.

NGC 1241 Fairly large, round and faint galaxy. Averted vision needed at 125x and held with direct at 167x. Brighter nucleus pops in and out of view at 167x.

NGC 1316 Large, bright galaxy. Easy at 110x. Slightly elongated with very bright core and stellar nucleus.

NGC 1614 Very faint galaxy - averted vision at 125x shows this as round with slightly brighter center.

NGC 1741 Averted vision galaxy at 125x and remains an averted vision object at 167x. Round, uniform brightness. The only way this one was found was it is near a couple easily found field stars.

NGC 1961 Large, faint galaxy. Visible, but not easy at 80x. Shows a bit better at 120x. Faint star involved. No central condensation.

NGC 2418 Small, faint galaxy. Pretty easy at 110x and good at 167x. Bright core and surrounded by several mag 13 or 14 stars.

NGC 2444 Very faint, fairly large galaxy. Just seen with direct vision at 110x and held well at 167x. Higher power seems to show companion galaxy or brightening in 2444. Checking Megastar, it appears that 2444 is the supposed brightening while the brighter galaxy is actually 2445.

NGC 2523 Very faint galaxy. Seen at 110x, but not easy. Round with no central brightening. Mag 11 or 12 star just at edge.

NGC 2535 Very small, very faint galaxy. Difficult to locate at 110x. Averted vision first needed to find. 145x shows 3 faint stars next to galaxy.

NGC 2537 Bright, large and round galaxy. Easy at 110x. Near mag 9 or 10 star. (Megastar shows at 10.7)

NGC 2608 Faint, round galaxy. Fairly easy at 110x. No central brightening noted.

NGC 2655 Small, round and pretty bright galaxy. Easy at 110x. Strong central concentration. Good object.

NGC 2672 Pretty bright galaxy. Easy at 110x. Good at 167x, which shows brighter core and faint star involved.

NGC 2685 Small, round galaxy with bright core. Easy at 110x and good with 125x.

NGC 2782 Small, round, pretty faint galaxy. Brighter nucleus. Pretty easy at 110x.

NGC 2798 Small, fairly faint galaxy. Not too easy at 110x. Bright core.

NGC 2832 Fairly faint galaxy, but pretty obvious at 110x. Round and moderately large. No strong central brightening. In Lynx cluster. Averted vision pops several members out at 125x, but this is the brightest by far.

NGC 2872 This is a member of a pretty bright pair of galaxies with 2874. It's an easy pair at 110x. 125x shows both with some central condensation.

NGC 2911 Large, round and pretty faint galaxy, Bracketed between 2 mag 10 or 11 stars. Very little central brightening.

NGC 2992 Very faint galaxy. Not obvious at 110x, but seems to show up better with 22mm Panoptic (an eyepiece I just bought today so you know everything will look better through it!) Round with no central condensation.

NGC 3034 M82 - Large, very bright galaxy. Several dark lanes visible in this greatly elongated object. Excellent at 150x.

NGC 3193 Part of a group of 4 galaxies with 3185,3187 and 3190. 3193 and 3190 are the brightest with 3193 a bit fainter than 3190. Bright central condensation and round. Easy at 100x and the whole group is wonderful object.

NGC 3226 With NGC - faint pair of galaxies. Very close together. Best seen with 100x and averted vision.

NGC 3310 Small, round, pretty bright galaxy. Suspect faint outer halo around much brighter central area. Easy at 110x.

NGC 3395 Fairly bright galaxy. Easy at 110x. Appears almost in contact with 3396. This is the brightest of the pair.

NGC 3396 With 3395. 145x shows stellar nucleus. Nice pair.

NGC 3414 Small, round, fairly bright. Easy at 100x, but better at 150x. Bright star in low power field makes observing difficult. Bright nucleus.

NGC 3432 Fairly bright galaxy. Much elongated spindle. Easy at 110x. 3 stars involved with 2 forming a pair at the SW tip.

NGC 3445 Fairly large pretty faint galaxy southwest of mag 10 star. Round with uniform brightness. First seen with averted but held with direct vision at 110x.

NGC 3448 Pretty bright, oval galaxy. Easy at 110x if the mag 4 star (44 UMa) is put out of the field. 167x shows galaxy more elongated with a slightly brighter core and possibly a very faint stellar nucleus. Several mag 13 or 14 stars surround.

NGC 3623 M65 - Large, bright galaxy. Beautiful object with M66 in low power field. 110x shows bright stellar nucleus and much mottling. Very elongated with several stars surrounding.

NGC 3627 M66 - Another large, bright and elongated galaxy. Easy in 8x50 finder. 110x shows bright stellar nucleus and mottling.

NGC 3628 Large, bright and elongated. Good object at 100x. Very little central brightening. North of M65/66.

NGC 3631 Large, fairly dim galaxy. Easy at all powers. Round with brighter center.

NGC 3656 Small, pretty faint galaxy. Not too difficult at 110x. Round with a mag 12 star just west.

NGC 3664 Fairly large and very faint galaxy. Just held with direct vision at 110x. Located in large triangle of mag 10 stars. Galaxy is round with no central brightening.

NGC 3690 Pretty bright galaxy. Easy at 110x. North of a mag 11 star and shows brighter center in round halo. 167x shows a faint stellar nucleus or stellaring.

NGC 3718 In same field as 3729. Much larger than 3729. Elongated and fairly faint. Has a pair of 11th mag. stars to south.

NGC 3738 and 3756 Nice pair of galaxies. Easy at 110x. 3738 is the brighter and appears round while 3756 is a bit elongated. 167x shows 3738 as smooth with no central brightening.

NGC 3769 Pretty bright galaxy. Easy at 110x. Small and elongated with no central brightening.

NGC 3786 Fairly faint, but not too hard at 110x. This is in a group of 3 galaxies - 3786, 3788 and 3793. 3786 is the brightest and 3788 is nearly as bright and just north of 3786. 3793 comes and goes with averted vision at 167x and is VERY difficult to see.

NGC 3994 With 3995. A small group of 2 galaxies. Both elongated and pretty easy at 110x. Just west of a mag 6 star. 166x brings 3rd galaxy (3991) into view. Would be a much better field, but star overwhelms galaxies.

NGC 4027 Large, fairly bright, round galaxy - easy at 100x. No condensation at 150x, but faint star appears involved a bit south of center with averted vision.

NGC 4038 Large, fairly bright galaxy. Easy at 100x. Round with no condensation.

NGC 4088 With 4085. Pair of galaxies in medium power field. Both very elongated. 4088 is the larger and brighter. It is easy at 80x. No central brightening apparent. 4085 is much smaller and is fairly faint. Initial view of area at 80x did not show 4085, but re-examination at 110x popped it into view. It is ill defined with no central brightening.

NGC 4194 Difficult. Very small, round with bright core. At 90x. looks stellar with direct vision. 127x pops fainter halo into view. Small group of stars to the west shown on Uranometria help to locate galaxy.

NGC 4438 Paired with 4435. 4438 is the brightest of the pair. Easy at 100x.

NGC 4472 (M49) Large, bright galaxy with very bright core. Bright star involved. 167x shows fainter stars around galaxy.

NGC 4485 With 4490. Pretty, very close pair of galaxies. 4490 is much larger a nd brighter than 4485. 4485 is fairly easy at 80x. 145x shows it as slightly oval. Almost uniform brightness with no central brightening. 4490 is bright and very easy at 80x. It is strongly elliptical with a brighter longitudinal area. Good pair.

NGC 4486 Large, bright galaxy. Easy at all powers. Round with much brighter core. In field with 4476 and 4478. 4478 is the brightest of this pair. Both easy at 90x. 4478 had bright central area.

NGC 4490 See 4485

NGC 4569 Another large, bright galaxy. Easy at all powers. Elongated with very bright core and stellar nucleus.

NGC 4618 Broad, fairly bright galaxy. Easy at 80x. Very little central brightening. Higher power does not show much more.

NGC 4631 Bright galaxy - very elongated spindle. Easy at 100x, but better at higher magnifications. Very little central condensation. 12th mag. star to N. of galaxy.

NGC 4649 (M60) Bright, large galaxy. Easy at all powers. 3 other galaxies in same field. 4647 fainter with no central brightening. Is in contact with 4649. 4637/8 appears as small, bright single object with bright core. M59 is also in field.

NGC 4651 Fairly large pretty bright galaxy. Easy at 90x A bit elongated with slightly brighter center.

NGC 4747 Very faint, limit of detection galaxy. Location is easily found with double star just south of galaxy. Averted vision and moving scope needed to show this very faint patch.

NGC 4861 Just barely glimpsed with averted vision at 167x. Seen between 2 faint stars. Skiff and Luginbuhl claim the southern of these 2 stars is actually an HII region in the galaxy. It is easier to see than the galaxy itself.

NGC 5128 Huge, bright and excellent object at 100x! Dark lane divides into 2 unequal lobes with the southern the brighter. S. lobe also has fairly bright star involved. Magnificent object! Dark lane easily seen through 20x80 binocs. Object very good through binocs.

NGC 5194 (M51) Beautiful - as always. Very large, open faced galaxy with bright companion. Well-concentrated nuclear region. Easy at all powers. 167x shows 1 star near center and a suggestion of another. Sky not dark enough to show spiral structure.

NGC 5195 Companion galaxy to M51. Large, very bright with a very bright central region. Easy at all powers.

NGC 5278 Pretty faint round galaxy that was just seen at 90x. Shows up a bit better at 127x. Uniform brightness.

NGC 5395 Fairly bright galaxy. Easy at 90x. 127x shows as a bit elongated in N-S direction. Fairly bright star (mag 13.7 according to Megastar) south of galaxy and possible small, round galaxy to the north (

NGC 5394). 167x shows slightly brighter center on 5395.

NGC 5457 M101 - Very large, bright face-on galaxy. Easy at 90x. Bright nucleus with close mag 11 or 12 star (Megastar shows as mag 13.6) and several other stars involved.

NGC 5566 Fairly small round galaxy. Easy at 110x. Bright core. Averted vision shows oval outer envelope. Mag 11 or 12 star involved nearby.

NGC 5820 Field is easily identified with a wide, bright double star. The galaxy is about 8' west (according to Skiff) and is easy at 90x. Seen as a small, fairly bright round glow. 167x seems to pop a stellar nucleus into view.

NGC 6217 Pretty faint galaxy. Seen at 100x without too much problem. Appears slightly elongated and stellar nucleus pops in and out of view with averted vision.

NGC 6946 Very large and fairly faint galaxy. Pretty easily seen at 100x sitting next to triangle of 9th mag stars. Very ill defined with just a hint of central brightening.

NGC 7448 Fairly small and dim galaxy. Pretty easy @ 100x. 150x shows faint double star sitting next to 7448. Galaxy elongated with very little central brightening.

NGC 7585 Fairly dim galaxy, but not difficult at 110x. Round with brighter central area. Galaxy holds power well and looks good at 222x.

NCG 7625 Small, round and fairly bright galaxy. Very obvious at 110x and better at 222x. Appears uniformly bright with no central brightening.

NGC 7674 Very faint galaxy. Averted vision at 110x and held with direct vision at 222x. Small, round with no central brightening. 142x seems to give the best view. Can be held with direct vision at this power.

NGC 7678 This is a fun object. While the galaxy is not very bright, it is contained in a small triangle of mag. 11 stars. The galaxy can be held with direct vision at 110x, but the stars draw the eye and it shows up better with averted vision. Galaxy appears as slightly oval and uniform in brightness. Very low surface brightness so it does not show well at 222x.

NGC 7714 Small, round galaxy that is difficult to see due to proximity of 5th or 6th mag star - 16 PSC. Faint halo surrounds bright stellar core. Best seen with averted at 142x.

NGC 7753 Large, fairly faint galaxy. Pretty easy at 110x, but a bit better at 142x. Slight central brightening.

NGC 7727 Small, fairly faint galaxy - round with a hint of nucleus @ 130x in brighter central area.